Archived from:
http://www.handsontheland.org/classroom/2002serv_learn/olym/vegetation.htm

Red Alder ( Alnus rubra )-

The Red Alder, located by lowland streams and swamps, is a fast growing tree that prefers poor soil because it doesn't need soil nitrogen. Over time the Red Alder improves soil structure and fertility around the base of the tree. The Native Americans had many uses for this flavor free wood. They would make spoons, dishes, and used it for the smoking of salmon, because of its rich oily skin. Dyes were also created from the Red Alders, the bark would be transformed into a dye using various techniques. The dyes were then used on their fishing nets, so they would not be seen by the fish.

Western Red-Cedar ( Thuja plicata ) -

This slow growing tree is the largest of its family. The Western Red-Cedar resists highwinds, rot, and insects very well and commonly lives to be over 1000 years of age. The bark was used to make warm clothes when woven; when plaited it made efficient roofing, mats, hats, blankets, dishes, and ropes.

Douglas Fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii ) -

The Douglas fir grows strong, straight, and fast. The tree was named after David Douglas who was supposedly "the first person to discover the Douglas Fir". However, the tree was discovered well before David was even alive. The Native Americans chewed the sap and used the thick bark as a fuel.

Western Hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla )-

This forest tree often presents a lacey canopy because the needles are mixed in length.The Western Hemlock is one of the more prominent species in older forests. It is considered a late successional tree often replacing the towering Douglas Fir. The bark of the Western Hemlock produces a rich tannin which can be used for water sealing, stoping bleeding, and to prevent chapping.

Vine Maple ( Acer circinatum )-

Also known to the Quinault Indians as " The Basket Tree" because they wove long shoots of the tree into heavy baskets for hauling wood and other heavy items. The Vine Maple's seeds fall from the tree with a helicopter like motion to gain distance from the tree in a breeze.

Western White Pine ( Pinus monticola )-

The Western White Pine was struck a crippling blow by the logging industry because its wood was in high demand. Another factor that contributed to the diminishing population of the White Pine was "The White Pine Blister Rust" which was a fungus introduced by the logging industries. In fact, you most likely will not see many of these trees and the ones you do see are probably young and not in the best of health.

Salal ( Gaultheria shallon ) -

The Salal Berries rival Huckleberries in flavor with less a acidic and a more spicy flavor. North-west tribes have used them in baking cakes, breads as well as storing others in skunk cabbage leaves to enjoy during the winter months.

Oregon Grape ( Berberis nervosa )-

The Oregon Grape is one of the more sour grapes and is often mixed with a sweeter varieties in baking. Early pioneers used the Oregon Grape to make their jellies and wines. Native Americans gathered the roots of the Oregon Grape to create yellow dyes and teas used to soothe a sore throat or stomach.

Huckleberry ( Vaccinium )-

Also known as "Wild Blueberries" or "Wortleberries" the Huckleberry is a favorite to bears, birds, Native Americans, and hikers. There are twelve diffrent species of the Huckleberry found in the north-west.

Red Elderberry ( Sambucus racemosa )-

The Red Elderberry is not to be idlely munched; they should be cooked since a raw berry may cause nausea due to the presence of cyanide producing glycosides. However, once boiled these berries have been known to make good jelly or wine.

Ocean Spray ( Holodiscus discolor )-

Native Americans found the straight branches of the Ocean Spray valuable for making arrows, fishing spears, roasting tongs, drum hoops and cradle hoops. although the branches first had to be prepared with fire to create "ironwood" or "arrowwood".

Salmonberry (R. spectabilis)-

These delicious berries resemble a juicy rasberry and are mixed shades of yellow and scarlet regardless of ripeness.

Thimbleberry (R. parviflorus)-

The Thimbleberry resembles soft fuzzy Rasberries.

Self-Heal (Prunella vulgaris)-

Self-Heal is known by pioneers, Europeans and Native Americans for its various medicinal powers. These medicinal powers included healing wounds, sores, and chapped skin.

Vanilla Leaf (Achlys tryphylla)-

Hikers are attracted to the pleasant fragrance of the Vanilla Leaf. The fragrance can last a long time when the plant is dried.

Pipsissewas (Chimaphila)-

The Leaves of the Pipsissewas were used as a remedy for bladderstones. Herbalists still harvest them in the north-west some times a bit excessivly.