Wilderness Safety

Archived from:
http://web.archive.org/web/20071005001927rn_1/www.nps.gov/archive/olym/wic/safety.htm

Always leave an itinerary of your hike with family and friends, and stick to it.

Wilderness, by its very nature, has inherent risks. Safety is a personal responsibility. Before your trip, learn about the hazards you may encounter and take adequate precautions. Select appropriate clothing and equipment.
Always hike with a companion. Choose a trail that matches the skill level of your party.

Know your own limitations and the abilities and weaknesses of your hiking companions. Plan your route and rate of travel around the weakest member. Make sure that each member of your party knows what gear the others have packed. Track your location using map and compass. If you encounter trouble, do not be afraid to turn back. During periods of extreme rain, snow and fog, you may be safer to hole up rather than attempt to travel.

If you are late returning from an outing, the park will not begin a search unless you are reported as overdue.
Leave information about your trip plan with a family member or trusted friend. Be sure to include the latest date you will be out. To effectively begin a search, the park will need to know your vehicle description (rental car?) and license plate number, itinerary, the names of those traveling with you and a list of your gear and clothing.
Read under "Emergencies" how to report an overdue hiker to the park. If you do change your plan, notify your contact before going up the trail.

Hypothermia Prevent hypothermia by wearing wool or synthetic layers (NOT cotton!), a cap and rain gear. Beware of hypothermia (depressed body temperature) which is the number one killer in the outdoors. It may occur quickly from being wet and cold, or slowly from long exposure to cold, rain and wind. You can even get hypothermia in temperatures as high as 50 degrees F!
Early signs of the condition are hard to detect, so when it is wet and cold, watch for these symptoms in your party: poor judgment, lethargy, shivering, clumsiness.

To prevent hypothermia avoid exposure to the wind, especially when you are wet or sweaty. Wear adequate rain gear and wool or polypropylene clothing layers, not cotton. Nearly half of body heat is lost through the head always be ready to wear a stocking cap when weather dictates. Eat high-energy foods. Treatment of hypothermia can be complex, but the key is to prevent further heat loss, and to re-warm and re-hydrate the victim.

Before heading out anywhere in the Pacific Northwest, learn more about hypothermia, its symptoms and treatment.

Dehydration Olympic National Park has a cool, wet climate. However, dehydration can occur no matter what the weather.
Heat exhaustion can be brought on by warm weather, exertion and dehydration. Symptoms are hot, red, moist skin and fatigue, frequently accompanied by a headache. When the weather is warm, take frequent short breaks
in the shade, and drink plenty of water. If your urine is dark yellow, you need to drink more water. Failure to observe and treat the signs of heat exhaustion can lead to heat stroke, an extremely serious condition.

Cougars If you see a cougar, you are one of the few to have seen such an elusive creature! Do not approach, but face the animal, speak firmly, wave your arms and back away.
Cougars, also called mountain lions, range throughout the Olympics. Seldom seen, cougars are large animals, often over 100 pounds, with long rope-like tails. They are usually reddish-tan to gray-brown, with black markings on the face and tail tip. Report all cougar sightings to a ranger. The cougar is a potentially dangerous animal, although attacks on humans are rare. If you see a cougar:

- Do not approach, especially one that is near a recent prey-kill or has kittens.
- Stop, stay calm and do not turn your back and/or run.
- Face the animal, stand upright, talk calmly and firmly to the cougar and give it a way to escape if you can.
- Do all you can to appear larger. For example, open your jacket and raise and wave your arms.
- Pick up small children immediately so they won't panic, flee or make rapid movements.
- If the cougar becomes more aggressive, become more aggressive toward it. Convince the animal that you are not prey, but a danger to it.
- Fight back if attacked.

Bears
Minimize bear encounters by keeping a clean camp and storing food properly.

There have been several instances of aggressive bears in the Olympics. No injuries have been reported, but property was damaged and bears have acted in a threatening manner. If you meet a bear on the trail, give it a wide berth. If a bear comes into camp, make noise to scare the bear away. If it is intent on getting your food or other property, do not risk injury. In the face of repeated encounters, leave the area, with or without your property as appropriate. Notify park staff in all instances of food loss or property damage, or any other threatening acts by bears. Read "Food Storage."

Other Wildlife and Plants
During warm weather, black flies, deer and horse flies, and mosquitoes can be a nuisance. Wearing insect repellent, long sleeved shirts and long pants may help. Yellow jackets are common in warm weather, and may nest in rotten logs or in the ground.

There are no poisonous snakes in the Olympics.

Deer are found nearly everywhere in the wilderness and show little fear of humans. Do not feed deer. They can be dangerous, striking out with their hooves or antlers. Feeding deer can also be harmful to their health. They crave the salt found in human urine, feces and food. An inadequately dug cat hole can be a deer's delight, so bury human waste properly. Deer ticks have been found in the north part of the park, but no cases of Lyme disease have been reported.

Nonnative mountain goats are found here and have become accustomed to human contact. Goats are experts at getting hikers' food so store it properly. They are also attracted to the salts in urine and sweat. To reduce their impacts on plants and soil, urinate on large rocks or areas free of vegetation, such as the trail tread. Store anything that tastes of sweat, including clothes, boots and packs, inside your tent.

Mothers of some animals may become dangerous if you disturb their young. Never, for example, get between a femail bear and her cub. Young animals, such as fawns, may be temporarily left by their mother. Do not be tempted to pick up these young animals, even if you think something is wrong with them. A lingering human scent can lead to abandonment.

Poison oak and stinging nettle, both of which cause different forms of dermatitis, are found in the wilderness.
Poison oak occurs in a few locations, including the Spruce Railroad and Wagonwheel Lake trails. Stinging nettle grows in wet seeps and meadows.

Pets and Parks
Pets are not permitted in the backcountry.

Pets are permitted on leash in developed areas only, they are not allowed in the backcountry. The only exceptions to this are from Rialto Beach north to Ellen Creek, and the beaches between the Hoh and Quinault Indian Reservations. Pets are permitted in these areas during daylight hours only, and must be on a leash.

Most of the wild animals in the park are accustomed to human presence, mainly because they are not hunted.
However, pets by nature have enemies in the wild animal world. Pets are not permitted in the wilderness for several reasons:

Pets scare wild animals away, preventing you and other visitors from viewing wildlife. Pets, while in the park, are in an environment strange to them. Their natural instinct is to chase, harass or at least investigate wild animals they encounter. Wild animals in the park are protected from disturbance by visitors and their pets.

Pets may attract dangerous wild animals, such as bears and cougars. When threatened by a wild animal, a dog off leash may seek protection from its owner. This puts you in danger. In recent years, there have been instances of cougars attacking dogs restrained on a leash held by their owner.

Your pet may be intimidating to other visitors. He may be your best friend, but not the friend of other visitors.
If you are headed into the backcountry, leave your pet at home.

Emergencies
Know what to do in case you become injured or lost in the wilderness.

To report emergencies, (such as overdue hikers or injuries) dial 911. Many backcountry ranger patrol stations are staffed during summer months. Ask about their location when you register.

Injured? Provide whatever treatment you can. If possible, do not leave the injured party alone. If you must leave, make the person comfortable with warm clothing, shelter and food.

Send for help with the following information:
Nature of the emergency: date and time it occurred, details of incident and injuries.
Patient condition: airway, breathing and circulation normal or on the extreme? Has first aid been given? Is CPR in progress?
Location: the closest known location, or approximate distance or walking time from a known location. Mark it on your topo map as best you can.
Resources: number of people (adult/juvenile) and equipment left at the scene.
Patient information: name, address, phone, age, weight, who to notify.
Color of injured party's belongings: tent, pack, clothing.

Lost? If you become lost, turn to your Ten Essentials. Stay calm and think through the situation. Stay put you will be found sooner. Stay warm and dry. If you are tempted to follow a river or creek, remember that these are often the most dangerous routes in the Olympics. Create a signal visible from the air. Lay out brightly-colored clothing in a forest clearing. Use a signal mirror.

Cell Phones

Do not depend on a cell phone to help you in an emergency. Come prepared to meet wilderness on its own terms.
Why do we go into the wilderness? Many visitors enjoy wild places, away from civilization. Many backcountry visitors seek the classic wilderness values of risk, solitude and challenge. Use of cell phones, for anything other than serious emergencies, detracts from the character of wilderness. And keep in mind that it is next to impossible for a dispatcher to give directions to a lost person calling on a cell phone. Route-finding and safety skills are paramount in the wild.

Cell phone coverage is very patchy in much of the interior and coastal areas of the park. There may be a chance to reach a cell site by climbing to a ridge top. From the backcountry, report only serious emergencies by calling 911.

Remember that you may be hitting a cell site located in Seattle, Portland or Canada. Make sure to state who you are, your specific location and the other information outlined under "Emergencies" above. Knowledge of one's location is vital to the success of any rescue. Also, provide your cell phone number so you can be called back; don't move if they are planning to return a call. Sometimes just a foot or two makes a difference in getting a call through to a cell phone in the wilderness.


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